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STANDARDS RELATING TO TITANIUM
INDUSTRY : ASTM B 265 / ASME SB 265 / ASTM B 348 / ASME SB 348 / ASTM B 338 / ASTM B 381 / ASTM B 861 / ASTM B 862 / AWS A5.16 / NACE MR 0175
MEDICAL : ISO 5832.2 / ISO 5832.3 / ISO 5832.11 / ASTM F 67 / ASTM F 136 / ASTM F 1472 / ASTM F 1295
AERONAUTICS : AMS 4900 / AMS 4901 / AMS 4902/ AMS 4911 / AMS4920 / AMS 4918 / AMS 4928 / AMS 4934 / AMS 4935/ AMS 4965 / AMS 4967 / AMS 4971 / AMS 4975 / AMS 6930
———– ————- AMS-T-9046 / ASTM B265 / ASTM B381/ MMS 1217 / MMS 1233 / DMS 1570 /DMS 1583 / DMS 1592 /DMS 2285 / DMS 2442 / BMS 7 348 / UNS R56400
Titanium was discovered by British chemist Reverend William Gregor in 1791. In 1793, a German chemist, M. Klaproth also discovered it independently. The name “titanium” comes from Greek mythology, “Titan” being the personification of a supernatural force. The titanium trade started in the 1950s.
Titanium is the fourth most abundant metallic element in the Earth’s crust. It is found naturally, generally in chemical combination with oxygen and iron.
Titanium is extracted from rutile and ilmenite, minerals found in Australia, Canada, Russia, the United States, Norway, South Africa, and also Sierra Leone. Rutile contains between 93 and 96% titanium dioxide, while ilmenite contains between 44 and 77%. Titanium in its commercial form is produced principally in Russia, the United States, Japan and China.
Titanium production is a particularly complicated process. The first step is to make sponge (which takes its name from its spongy appearance) from the rutile and ilmenite: chlorination, production of titanium tetrachloride, which is then reacted with magnesium (using the Kroll process). The next step is to produce an ingot from the sponge, by melting, either under vacuum using a consumable electrode or VAR (Vacuum Arc Reduction), or by cold hearth Electron Beam (EB) melting, or by PAM (Plasma Arc Melting), or by ISM (Induction Skull Melting). Titanium alloy ingots are produced by the addition of various elements (vanadium, aluminium, molybdenum, tin, zirconium, etc.). The ingots are generally processed by hot forging to obtain semi-products (slabs, blooms and billets), which are in turn processed by rolling, forging, extrusion, machining, etc. to obtain finished semi-products (bars, sheets, tubes, wires, etc.)
Annual titanium consumption worldwide is around 60,000 metric tons (equivalent to the surface area of a football stadium to a depth of two metres)
Key properties of titanium:
Titanium comes in two allotropic forms:
Titanium alloys are classified into three groups:
Generally speaking, titanium alloys have superior mechanical strength and lower corrosion resistance than non-alloyed grades of titanium, also known as commercially pure (CP) titanium. TA6V is the most common alpha-beta alloy in the titanium industry. T40 and T60 are the most common commercially pure titanium grades in industrial use. They differ in their oxygen and iron content; T40 (grade 2) is purer than T60 (grade 4)
At high temperatures, titanium has a high affinity for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen. This essential characteristic must be taken into account in the use and processing of the metal.
Surface oxidation provides excellent corrosion resistance. A special feature of this protection is that it reforms naturally in the event of scratching, which gives titanium a considerable advantage over stainless steels.
Physical properties of titanium: